Complex Sentences – A clause is a group of related words that contain a subject and a verb. A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject or a verb.
1. Independent Clause
A clause which can stands by itself as a sentence.
- Shelly works in the company.
- The dog barks every night.
2. Dependent Clause
A clause which can not stand by itself as a sentence, so it should be attached to an independent clause.
- because she often comes late to campus
- when I met him last week
1. the handsome boy (Noun Phrase)
2. since this morning (Adverbial Phrase)
3. very dangerous (Adjective Phrase)
4. the most expensive dress in this store (Noun Phrase)
5. was walking (Verbal Phrase)
6. will have arrived (Verbal Phrase)
7. has been returned (Verbal Phrase)
1. When Dina met her yesterday , she was reading a newspaper.
2. Because my friend hasn’t energy, she doesn’t do anything.
3. I met the boy who I love very much.
4. I called the man who stood in front of the classroom.
5. Why he always comes late remains a question for me.
6. I listened seriously to what he was saying.
Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Subject.
I saw the man. He closed the door.
I saw the man who closed the door.
Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Object of A verb
The man was Mr. Jones. I saw him.
The man whom I saw was Mr. Jones.
Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Object of a Preposition. Some verbs are usually followed by certain prepositions, like : tell about, listen to, go to, talk to/about, get sth from, look at, vote for, and dance with. The objects which come after certain prepositions are called the object of prepositions.
She is the girl. I told you about her last night.
She is the girl about whom I told you last night.
She is the girl who (m) I told you about last night.
She is the girl that I told you about last night.
She is the girl I told you about last night.
The Use of WHOSE, WHERE, and WHEN in Adjective Clauses. Whose is used to show possession. It carries the same meaning as his, her, and their and is always connected to a noun.
I know the man. His bicycle was stolen.
I know the man whose bicycle was stolen.
Where is used in adjective clause to modify a place, like city, country, room, and house.
The building is very old. He lives there (in the building).
The building where he lives is very old.
The building in which he lives is very old.
The building which he lives in is very old.
The building that he lives in is very old.
The building he lives in is very old.
When is used in adjective clause to modify a noun of time, like year, day, time, and century.
I will never forget the day. I met you then (in that day).
I will never forget the day when I met you.
I will never forget the day on which I met you.
I will never forget the day that I met.
I will never forget the day I met you.
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